This blend of essential oils (lemongrass, peppermint, geranium, lemon eucalyptus, citronella, rosemary and cedarwood) is effective against mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, gnats, and other flying insects without the use of harmful chemicals or preservatives. Our customers even use it on their canine companions. Has a light pleasant smell. Please re-apply every 3-4 hours. Shake well.